TO THE CHOIRMASTER: ACCORDING TO SHUSHAN EDUTH. A MIKTAM OF DAVID; FOR INSTRUCTION; WHEN HE STROVE WITH ARAM-NAHARAIM AND WITH ARAM-ZOBAH, AND WHEN JOAB ON HIS RETURN STRUCK DOWN TWELVE THOUSAND OF EDOM IN THE VALLEY OF SALT.
O God, you have rejected us, broken our defenses;
you have been angry; oh, restore us.
2. You have made the land to quake; you have torn it open;
repair its breaches, for it totters.
3. You have made your people see hard things;
you have given us wine to drink that made us stagger.
4. You have set up a banner for those who fear you,
that they may flee to it from the bow. Selah
5. That your beloved ones may be delivered,
give salvation by your right hand and answer us!
6. God has spoken in his holiness:
“With exultation I will divide up Shechem
and portion out the Vale of Succoth.
7. Gilead is mine; Manasseh is mine;
Ephraim is my helmet;
Judah is my scepter.
8. Moab is my washbasin;
upon Edom I cast my shoe;
over Philistia I shout in triumph.”
9. Who will bring me to the fortified city?
Who will lead me to Edom?
10. Have you not rejected us, O God?
You do not go forth, O God, with our armies.
11. Oh, grant us help against the foe,
for vain is the salvation of man!
12. With God we shall do valiantly;
it is he who will tread down our foes.

Psalm 60 is referring to 2 Samuel 8 when David was showing his kingly power and leading a military campaign against Syria and Edom. In 2 Samuel 8:13, David strikes down 18,000 Edomites in the Valley of Salt. However, this Psalm makes Joab out to be the hero at Edom, as he stikes down 12,000 in verse 1. Granted, since David wrote this, he may have wanted to give credit to his men instead of himself.

1. O God, you have rejected us, broken our defenses; you have been angry; oh, restore us.”
Psalm 60 is a lament Psalm. Throughout the Psalm, David is frustration in God for abandoning Israel in its battles while expressing his trust in the Lord to help them to victory in the end. Verse 1 starts the psalm off with an invocation.

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2. You have made the land to quake; you have torn it open; repair its breaches, for it totters.
3. You have made your people see hard things; you have given us wine to drink that made us stagger.
4. You have set up a banner for those who fear you,that they may flee to it from the bow. Selah
Verses 2-4 are the lament proper. David is describing the things that the people need assistance from the Lord to escape from. These verses are also examples of Gray’s Parallelism in that the second line is parallel to the first line due to the fact they balance each other. The repetition of showing the many things that the people of Israel are in fear of and need help from demonstrates this. Verse 2 could also be a hyperbole, or an exaggeration, in that it describes the land being torn open.

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5. That your beloved ones may be delivered, give salvation by your right hand and answer us!
6. God has spoken in his holiness: “With exultation I will divide up Shechem and portion out the Vale of Succoth.
7. Gilead is mine; Manasseh is mine; Ephraim is my helmet; Judah is my scepter.
8. Moab is my washbasin; upon Edom I cast my shoe; over Philistia I shout in triumph.”
Verse 5-8 may be seen as supplication. At the end of verse 5, David is begging for an answer from the Lord for help. In verses 6-8, he is restating what the Lord has already promised. This can be seen as David trying to remind the Lord of what he had already promised in an attempt to get him to help. There are also examples of metaphor in this section as well. Lines such as “Ephraim is my helmet; Judah is my scepter” are metaphors in that they compare the various tribes to various objects.”

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9. Who will bring me to the fortified city? Who will lead me to Edom?
10. Have you not rejected us, O God? You do not go forth, O God, with our armies.
11. Oh, grant us help against the foe, for vain is the salvation of man!
Verses 9-11 are also part of David’s supplication to God. Verse 11 makes it very obvious that David is begging for help in that he asks for help directly. In verses 9 and 10, David is asking God who will help him and why God hasn’t been helping Israel up to this point. Verses 9 and 10 may also be seen as rhetorical questions. David is asking these questions to get the point across that Israel needs help.

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12. With God we shall do valiantly; it is he who will tread down our foes.
Verse 12 plays the part of both the confession of faith and the praising of God. “With God we shall do valiantly” signifies the confession of faith because David believes that Israel will be victorious if they have faith in God. “It is he who will tread down our foes” represents the praising of God because David is saying that God has the power to destroy Israel’s enemies. This is also an example of synthetic parallelism. The second half of the verse completes the thought of the first half.

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